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Modalities Using Voltages, Electric Currents, Or Potentials In Devices

 Aug 3, 2022
Modalities Using Voltages, Electric Currents

All living organisms, including humans, produce electric currents and voltage potentials. This type of endogenous bioelectricity is a significant component of biology. Bioelectricity also serves as a substrate for all nervous system activity, membrane potential, and many other critical biological processes. The ability to manipulate and measure bioelectricity opens up new ways in advances in medicine.  There are a lot of examples of devices that manipulate and measure bioelectricity and have been beneficial for research in the biofield and medical sciences. EEG and ECG included as biofield devices, their mechanisms are well understood.  However, the approaches are susceptible to measures of distributed information flow which is required for cellular function and regulation. Information is also well understood in terms of biophysical substrates which is the representation of the important examples of biofield interactions (Dr. Stephan).

EEG is a noninvasive diagnostic technique that uses different electrodes placed on the scalp to create quantitative information about the brain's functional state. The various frequencies present in EEG data are indicative of specific brain states and cellular level brain function. EEG is used to track and identify activity of epileptic seizures. It has also been employed as a research tool to check and measure all the changes in brain state due to biofield therapies. ECG uses skin surface electrodes similarly to EEG and detect the heart's electrical activity. ECG is generally used as a diagnostic tool for heart-related conditions, including syncope, pulmonary embolism, and myocardial infarction. ECG data is used to measure variation in Heart rate variability (HRV) that have been associated to a variety of biofield practices. Electro-dermal activity which is measured by skin conductance and GSR (galvanic skin response) contemplate autonomic sympathetic arousal attached with cognitive and emotional states. GSR measurements are employed by multiple diagnostic devices. The GSR measurement is classified as Class II medical device by FDA, means it should be used for the measurement of skin conductance and also permitted for biofeedback usage. Based on the previous studies and theories of energy of the acupuncture meridians which is reflected by electro-dermal characteristics, capacitance, conductance, and polarization, measurements. These points are analyzed to find out the possibility to diagnose various pathologies and to assess overall wellbeing. 



Along with the diagnostic usage of bioelectricity, electrical stimulation is swiftly emerging as a pivotal new domain in medicine. Stimulation technologies like deep brain stimulation (DBS), vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) and trans-cranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), are under investigation for multiple new indications and currently practiced clinically. It is suggested to be beneficial in particular for diseases and conditions that do not come under regular treatment modalities of are not responsive to any pharmacological therapy. Vagus nerve stimulation uses the implanted electrodes to stimulate the mentioned vagus nerve. It is approved in the United States to treat depression and epilepsy. It is also being actively studied as a treatment for tinnitus, osteoarthritis, Alzheimer's disease, anxiety, migraine, obesity, fibromyalgia, sepsis, autism, and inflammatory pathologies.

DBS is used to stimulate a targeted brain regions with help of implanted electrodes. DBS has been studied and associated with the treatment of  major depression, chronic pain, and Tourette syndrome. Direct current stimulation is also approved by the FDA for the treatment of Parkinson's disease, tremor, dystonia, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Electrodes are placed upon the scalp to during the tDCS and non-invasively transmit electrical current across the brain. Various studies and research on tDCS is emerging and initial results indicates that it may enhance cognitive performance. These types of electric current technologies, which alleviate symptoms through delivering electrical current produce systems-level effects and could be examples of biofield therapeutic and diagnostic devices.